The 21-year-old has made the move after falling further down the pecking order at Stamford Bridge with Jose Mourinho’s purchase of Cesc Fabregas this summer.
McEachran, who joined Chelsea as an eight-year-old, has previously enjoyed loan spells at Watford, Wigan, Swansea and Middlesbrough.
Vitesse are a feeder club for Chelsea and they have already taken Bertrand Traore and Wallace on loan for the season from the west London team.
A statement from Chelsea read: "Josh McEachran has today joined Vitesse Arnhem on a season-long loan.
"We wish Josh well for his time in the Netherlands."
McEachran won the FA Youth Cup with Chelsea in 2010 and was part of Gareth Southgate's England squad for the Toulon Tournament in May.
The midfielder is the 14th Cheslea player to go out on loan this season.
Croatian striker Stipe Perica earlier completed a deal to return to NAC Breda on a season-long loan after spending the 2013/14 campaign with the Eredivisie club.