Goalkeeper Julio Cesar, midfielder Paulinho and defenders Dani Alves and Marcelo were among those missing from Dunga's 22-man squad for next month's friendlies against Colombia and Ecuador, as well as the injured Thiago Silva.
Liverpool playmaker Philippe Coutinho was one of several players to earn a recall, while Corinthians defender Gil and Cruzeiro duo Everton Ribeiro and Ricardo Goulart have been called up for the first time as Brazil start a new era following their embarrassing World Cup exit.
The South American giants were favourites going into the tournament on home soil but suffered a humiliating exit as they were beaten 7-1 by eventual winners Germany in the semi-finals. The hosts then lost 3-0 to Holland in the third-place play-off.
Despite the new-look squad Dunga, who replaced Luiz Felipe Scolari as coach last month for his second stint back in charge, insisted the 'door is still open' to those players who have not been selected this time.
Brazil's 1994 World Cup-winning captain said: "For those that went to the World Cup and aren't in this list, the doors are open. Just as those that are included don't have the spot secured.
"Now comes the best part: working with the players on the pitch. It's a new phase for all of us who have taken notice of the medium and long-term work of the Germans. We all know that we need to look for efficiency with quality."
Chelsea provide the most players in the squad with four, as new signing Filipe Luis joins Ramires, Oscar and Willian.
Regarding the three newcomers, Dunga, who was Brazil coach between 2006 and 2010, added: "Everton Ribeiro was called for his quality, his dribbling. It's important to have a player with that quality.
"Goulart is a very competitive man, a midfielder that gets into the opponent's box and knows how to score.
"Gil has had two very good seasons, he's a good commander for the defence. We're making a call considering the potential of the players."
Brazil face Colombia in Miami on September 5 before meeting Ecuador in New Jersey four days later.
Squad: Jefferson (Botafogo), Rafael Cabral (Napoli); David Luiz (PSG), Marquinhos (PSG), Gil (Corinthians), Miranda (Atletico Madrid), Maicon (Roma), Filipe Luis (Chelsea), Alex Sandro (Porto), Danilo (Porto);
Luiz Gustavo (Wolfsburg), Elias (Corinthians), Fernandinho (Manchester City), Ramires (Chelsea), Everton Ribeiro (Cruzeiro), Oscar (Chelsea), Ricardo Goulart (Cruzeiro), Willian (Chelsea), Philippe Coutinho (Liverpool); Hulk (Zenit St Petersburg), Neymar (Barcelona), Diego Tardelli (Atletico Mineiro).