The Russian, out of favour earlier in the season, capped a hard-working display with a thunderous drive from an acute angle in the seventh minute of stoppage time.
Reading went ahead early on when midfielder Danny Guthrie guided a long-range shot high into the roof of the net, but Doncaster levelled when substitute Theo Robinson latched on to a loose ball in the home area.
The Royals regained their lead through Adam Le Fondre before half-time and added two goals in the second half through Garath McCleary and Pogrebnyak.
"I'm so pleased for Pavel, it was an absolutely super finish," Adkins said.
"He's been working so hard at the training ground. It's all been down to him, it's always up to the player to go and do it. He's now reaping the rewards.
"I thought he was outstanding today.
"We started the game extremely well and scored an unbelievable team goal. We never allowed Doncaster to play the ball around at all. But some players then stopped doing what they had been doing successfully.
"Still, four goals, three points and the fans will have gone home happy."
Reading dominated the early stages and deservedly went ahead in the 11th minute when good approach work from Le Fondre and Pogrebnyak allowed McCleary to set up Guthrie. The midfielder made no mistake from 20 yards for his fourth goal of the season.
Doncaster appeared out of sorts but manager Paul Dickov replaced midfielder Dean Furman with forward Robinson and, within eight minutes, the move had paid dividends. Reading keeper Adam Federici spectacularly saved Mark Duffy's free kick but Robinson lashed the rebound high into the net.
Bongani Khumalo, the Doncaster centre back and former Reading loanee, could have put his side ahead but nodded wide at the far post when meeting a Duffy corner. Reading replied by regaining their lead, with McCleary's precise pass allowing Le Fondre the cleverly flick the ball keeper Ross Turnbull for his fifth goal of the campaign.
Although Doncaster began brightly in the second half, their fate was effectively sealed after skipper Rob Jones was taken off - and taken the hospital - with a suspected broken arm after an aerial collision with Sean Morrison.
With Dickov having used his three substitutes, his side were reduced to 10 men for the last 12 minutes and almost nine minutes of stoppage time.
Reading took advantage scoring first through McCleary, with a low shot after good work by Hal Robson-Kanu, and then through the back-in-favour Pogrebnyak.
"Reading started very quickly but, once I had changed the system, we got back into the game," Dickov said.
"I still fancied us to win the game at 2-1 down but playing with 10 men made it very difficult. Reading took full advantage of the situation and just picked us off.
"I still feel a bit aggrieved and disappointed about the scoreline. Although it was 4-1, I thought we competed well. The final ball just didn't come off for us.
"When we win matches, we try to draw the line under it quickly, and we'll be doing that with this game as well."