AIA linked up with Spurs at the start of this season as Cup shirt partner but will become principal global partner from the start of next term.
Their logo will appear on the front of Tottenham's shirts in all competitions until 2019.
The club hopes the agreement with the Hong Kong-based company can act as a platform to grow the club's name in the Asia-Pacific region.
"We have enjoyed an excellent relationship with AIA since they became our cup shirt partners at the beginning of this season," said Spurs chairman Daniel Levy.
"Together we share long-term ambitions across Asia - a region where the club has seen significant growth in recent years - and this extended partnership with AIA, one of the leading companies in the Asia-Pacific region and a clear market leader in their industry, will further help to support our objectives and engage with our supporters across the region.
"We are delighted that AIA has committed to the club for a further five years and look forward to developing our partnership further."
AIA Group Chief Executive and President Mark Tucker said: "English Premier League football has tremendous appeal in Asia and following the success of our Cup Shirt sponsorship of Spurs this season, we are now delighted to be entering this new partnership with the club.
"They have a massive fan base in Asia and we look forward to helping them further expand their presence here, as we continue to grow our franchise and communicate the strength, breadth and depth of the AIA brand to consumers in our 17 markets around the Asia-Pacific region."