The France international limped out of the Magpies' 1-0 home defeat to West Ham on November 11.
Manager Alan Pardew has confirmed the 26-year-old will miss Thursday's Europa League clash with Maritimo and will undergo surgery in the next week.
"He will definitely have an operation, and we think it's going to be on Friday or Monday, I'm not sure," said Pardew.
"That's a blow to us because he's a top player."
The French Football Federation had released a statement on Tuesday denying they were to blame for Cabaye's injury.
Cabaye linked up with France for last week's friendly against Italy, but the FFF said he 'did not train once' and 'did not play the slightest minute of the Italy-France match, which he followed from the bench, without wearing his match kit'.
Meanwhile, Pardew could also be without striker Shola Ameobi for Thursday's visit of Maritimo to St James' Park.
"The only one we are a little bit concerned about is Shola," he said.
"He's got a slight groin niggle, so we are going to have to see how he shapes up."