The 21-year-old has managed just six appearances for City since his £12m move from Everton in the summer due to a series of injuries.
The England international had recently returned to training but has suffered a setback with his hamstring problem.
Rodwell told the club's website: It will probably be another few weeks, so I'm looking into the New Year. I'm doing quite a lot of training at the minute though, so I'm keeping busy.
"It's down to strengthening now, so I'm doing a lot of work in the gym and am just getting it right to prevent another injury.
"It's been a frustrating start to the season and to my City career, bit I'm focused now and I'm ready to get back."
Samir Nasri could also be absent for the Christmas fixtures after picking up a groin injury during the Premier League win at Newcastle last weekend.
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