The 21-year-old has found first-team opportunities limited at his parent club and heads to Kingsmeadow in search of regular football.
Dons boss Neal Ardley told the club's official website: "We looked at Charlie last season and we have monitored him since then. He comes highly recommended from contacts that we've got in the north and we've watched Charlie play this season for Middlesbrough Under-21s.
"Middlesbrough have been very good with us in this deal because it requires hardly any financial outlay. Charlie is an out-and-out striker and we can certainly have a look at him during January."