Pickford played three matches in all competitions for the Brewers before a minor knee injury resulted in a recall to the Barclays Premier League club.
The 19-year-old has recovered from the problem and has spent the last week training with the Black Cats' first team.
"Jordan impressed us during his brief time with us and we are delighted to have him back; whilst in his absence it has been pleasing to see Dean Lyness get a run of games under his belt and he has done very well," said Burton boss Gary Rowett.
"It was always our intention to bring Jordan back to the club after his initial spell was cut short and we believe he will improve our squad."
Pickford will be available for selection on Saturday when Burton host Portsmouth in League Two.