The Reds, who finished 13th in the Blue Square Bet Premier last season, reverted back to operating on a part-time basis this summer, meaning Atkins will continue to train with Derby during the week as a full-time professional.
"At this stage of Ross' career he needs to be playing regular first-team football so the move to Alfreton is a great opportunity for him," Rams boss Nigel Clough said.
"The loan move will be beneficial for all parties involved as it allows Ross to play competitive first-team football whilst training on a full-time basis with Martin Taylor and the rest of the goalkeepers."
Atkins, 23, came through the youth ranks at Derby and made his first-team debut for the Rams on the final day of the 2010/11 season against Reading at the Madejski Stadium.
He has also enjoyed loan spells at Southport, Kidderminster and Tamworth in recent years, as well as three separate loan stints at Burton.