The 27-year-old Scotland international, who scored 16 goals last season, has committed himself to the Rams until 2019.
Derby boss Steve McClaren told the club website: "It is fantastic news that Craig Bryson has committed his long-term future to Derby County.
"At the end of last season I sat down with our president and chief executive, Sam Rush, and asked him to do his best to retain the core members of the squad, and I am delighted that has been the case.
"By giving Craig a five-year deal it shows just how highly we rated him; he is a great team player and he scores important goals as well, as we saw last season.
"He was an integral part of what we achieved last season and he will be a vital member of the side in the future as well."