Odemwingie last featured for the Super Eagles in February, and has scored 29 league goals since his move to The Hawthorns from Lokomotiv Moscow. He has four goals this season, but has registered just nine times in 55 games for his country.
Manager Keshi has instead preferred to take other Premier League forwards Victor Moses and Shola Ameobi. Former Newcastle forward Obafemi Martins has also been omitted.
The 32-man provisional squad contains six British-based players.
Goalkeepers: Vincent Enyeama (Maccabi Tel Aviv/Israel), Austin Ejide (Hapoel Be'er Sheba/Israel), Chigozie Agbim (Enugu Rangers), Daniel Akpeyi (Heartland)
Defenders: Elderson Echiejile (Braga/Portugal), Juwon Oshaniwa (Ashdod FC/Israel), Benjamin Francis (Heartland), Joseph Yobo (Fenerbahce/Turkey), Efe Ambrose (Celtic/Scotland), Solomon Kwambe (Sunshine Stars), Azubuike Egwuekwe (Warri Wolves), Danny Shittu (Millwall/England), Kenneth Omeruo (ADO Den Haag/Netherlands), Godfrey Oboabona (Sunshine Stars)
Midfielders: Mikel Obi (Chelsea/England), Nosa Igiebor (Real Betis/Spain), Ogenyi Onazi (Lazio/Italy), Raheem Lawal (Adana Demirspor/Turkey), Obiora Nwankwo (Padova/Italy), Fegor Ogude (Valerenga/Norway), Gabriel Reuben (Kano Pillars), Rabiu Ibrahim (Celtic/Scotland)
Forwards: Ahmed Musa (CSKA Moscow/Russia), Emmanuel Emenike (Spartak Moscow/Russia), Brown Ideye (Dynamo Kiev/Ukraine), Victor Moses (Chelsea/England), Uche Kalu (Rizespor/Turkey), Bright Dike (Portland Timbers/ USA), Shola Ameobi (Newcastle/England), Ikechukwu Uche (Villarreal/Spain), Ejike Uzoenyi, Sunday Mba (Enugu Rangers)