Agudelo, 21, has not played a single game for Stoke as he had not been granted a work permit following his move from New England Revolution.
Utrecht's chief scout Edwin de Kruijff told the Dutch club's website: "A young player like Agudelo must play and he can't do that at Stoke at the moment so it's a good opportunity for him and us."
Agudelo is a major name in the United States. He is the youngest goalscorer in the history of the national team after scoring a goal on his debut as a 17-year-old against South Africa in a friendly international in Cape Town in 2010.
Stoke originally signed Agudelo last summer on a pre-contract from MLS side New England Revolution ahead of a move in January, but in November he was denied a work permit.