The 23-year-old was sentenced at Leeds Crown Court on Friday after he was found guilty of punching two men in separate nightclub attacks.
Madine, who has a previous conviction for knocking a man out in a Carlisle pub, hit Daniel Beresford in the Paris Bar in Sheffield city centre in February last year, breaking his nose.
Four weeks later, he punched Reece Hall in the city's Viper Room club, shattering his cheekbone.
He was found guilty by a jury after a week-long trial of causing Mr Beresford actual bodily harm and causing Mr Hall grievous bodily harm.
Judge Rodney Jameson QC sentenced the footballer, who will now automatically be sacked by his club, to six months for the ABH and 12 months for the offence of GBH.
Alison Dorrell, defending Madine, said he had thrown away his talent due to "drink, childish behaviour and a temper problem".
She said: "He is not an asset to his club any more" and said he would struggle to re-start his career after serving a prison sentence.
Judge Jameson said the assaults occurred when the footballer "lashed out" when drunk with "little, if any, thought for the consequences".
He said: "When sober there is no reason to suppose that you would misbehave but I have to sentence you for serious offences which reflect the other side of your character.
"The side which comes out when you are in drink, which causes unprovoked violence causing serious injuries to innocent members of the public."
The judge said Madine had chosen not to "suppress" that side of his character.
However Judge Jameson said other professional footballers had rebuilt careers after serving time in jail and there was no reason why he could not.
Madine, who used to earn £5,000 a week, was also told that he would have to pay £1,500 in compensation to Mr Beresford and £4,200 court costs.
Ms Dorrell said she believed this would be difficult for the defendant who has not been paid by the club since he was convicted last month.
She said he was struggling to pay a mortgage on the house where his family lived.
Judge Jameson told the defence barrister that he would vary the compensation and costs if evidence could be provided that proved the defendant's difficult financial position.
He said he was conscious of the position of the footballer's family but said: "Much of the £5,000 a week went on high living."
A statement on Sheffield Wednesday's official Twitter site said: "Following the sentencing today at Leeds Crown Court, SWFC have no comment at this time and will issue a statement in due course."