Reports had suggested that Palace boss Ian Holloway was considering a move for Barnetta as he tried to bring in a new winger before the transfer window closed.
However, Barnetta opted to stay in the Bundesliga after linking up with Eintracht on a season-long loan from Schalke.
He will now head off on international duty, with Switzerland due to face Iceland and Norway in World Cup qualifiers, before starting the next stage of his career.
"I am really excited that the transfer went through in the end as I am keen to learn more about my team-mates, as well as the city of Frankfurt as soon as possible," the 28-year-old told the club's official website.
"First, I will be away on international duty with Switzerland, but I will be back in 10 days' time."
Barnetta still has two years left on his contract at Schalke and Eintracht do not have the option to sign the wide-man on a permanent deal.