The midfielder recently signed a contract extension until June 2014 with the west Londoners and will join Terry Butcher's side in a bid to gain some first-team experience.
The 19-year-old has spent the last five years at Loftus Road but is yet to make a senior appearance for Rangers.
Gibbons is expected to go straight into the squad for Wednesday's clash with St Mirren at Love Street.
Inverness have signed defenders Danny Devine, from Fleetwood, and Charlie Taylor, on loan from Leeds, already this month.
Meanwhile, young striker Jason Oswell has been released after his contract was cancelled by mutual consent.