Robinson, 32, had guided the Dons to two successive top-six finishes but has been unable to improve this season, with the club currently sitting ninth in League One.
The manager is now preparing for a complete overhaul of the set-up at stadium:MK, following in the footsteps of Barcelona and Borussia Dortmund.
He told the Milton Keynes Citizen: "I feel like I have let the fans down, my family and the chairman down too. It has left a sour taste in my mouth.
"I've not been good enough and I have to take responsibility for that.
"We're good enough to go up this season, but the buck ultimately stops with me."
Robinson also told MK News: "I'm changing an awful lot at the football club.
"There will be changes to the backroom staff. It will be based on a continental system.
"Barcelona have heads of sports science, heads of recruitment, heads of medicine, heads of coaching and then the manager oversees that. Dortmund are a shining light when it comes to youth development."