The 29-year-old Shakers captain, who began his career with Everton, was one of Bury's stand-out players last term, scoring 10 goals in 44 appearances.
"The ambition of the club and where it sees itself in the future was a big attraction to me coming here," Schumacher said. "There is a lot of drive at Fleetwood and I want to bring my own influence to what happens on the pitch next season."
Town manager Graham Alexander believes Schumacher can use the experience of over 300 Football League games with the likes of Bradford and Crewe to benefit his side's promotion hunt.
"Steven has come in and will be a great addition to the squad," he said. "He has great experience of winning at this level and of promotion. He scored 10 goals from midfield last season and brings leadership qualities as well."