Valdes was red-carded for his persistent remonstrations with match official Perez Lasa and has been hit with the maximum sanction by the Primera Division's disciplinary committee.
Valdes is due to miss games against Deportivo La Coruna, Real Mallorca, Rayo Vallecano and Celta Vigo, but the club have already signalled their intention to appeal.
A statement released on the Barca website read: "The competition committee of the Spanish Football Federation has suspended Valdes for four games for the straight red card he received after the match against Real Madrid.
"Consequently, the player can not play the next four league matches.
"The legal services of FC Barcelona (will) lodge an appeal in the coming days."