Yankey, who has a record 129 caps for England, misses out after failing to start any of the four World Cup qualifiers under caretaker manager Brent Hills following England's poor showing at the European Championships.
England skipper Casey Stoney is out of the squad due to injury but Sampson has called up Corinne Yorston, his captain during his time as manager of Bristol Academy.
Yorston earns her first call-up in five years and is joined in the squad by Bristol team-mates Jemma Rose and Siobhan Chamberlain.
Liverpool Ladies striker Natasha Dowie is recalled to the squad as is Boston Breakers striker Lianne Sanderson, who returns to the set-up following a three-year absence after falling out with previous manager Hope Powell.
Uncapped Arsenal duo Gilly Flaherty and Danielle Carter have also been named in the squad, and Sampson insists the trip to La Manga is a chance for all of the players to show what they can do.
"It's a great opportunity for us now with the training camp to bring some new players in to see how they adapt to the environment and see what they can do," Sampson said. "Moving forward for me it's about what they produce on the pitch and their character.
"If they are a professional character and the type of person who can fit into our team and they're playing well for their club they will have an opportunity to be selected
"Whether they have no caps or 150 caps, young or old the door is always open it's up to the players now to prove how much they want to play for England."
La Manga squad in full:
Karen Bardsley (Manchester City), Rachel Brown-Finnis (Everton), Siobhan Chamberlain (Bristol Academy)
Laura Bassett (Chelsea), Gemma Bonner (Liverpool), Sophie Bradley (Notts County), Lucy Bronze (Liverpool), Rachel Daly (LA Strikers), Gilly Flaherty (Arsenal), Alex Greenwood (Everton), Steph Houghton (Manchester City), Jemma Rose (Bristol Academy), Alex Scott (Arsenal), Demi Stokes (University of South Florida), Dunia Susi (Chelsea), Corinne Yorston (Bristol Academy)
Anita Asante (Malmo), Jade Moore (Birmingham City), Jordan Nobbs (Arsenal), Jill Scott (Manchester City), Fara Williams (Liverpool)
Eniola Aluko (Chelsea), Karen Carney (Birmingham City), Danielle Carter (Arsenal), Gemma Davison (Liverpool), Natasha Dowie (Liverpool), Toni Duggan (Manchester City), Lianne Sanderson (Boston Breakers), Jodie Taylor (Sydney), Ellen White (Arsenal).