The 28-year-old endured an injury-hit 2012/13 season, but is now back to full fitness.
Scotland boss Gordon Strachan has also recalled Brown's team-mates Charlie Mulgrew and James Forrest, and Vancouver Whitecaps striker Kenny Miller, the only player based outside the UK.
Brighton and Hove Albion pair Gordon Greer and Liam Bridcutt also return.
Speaking about Brown's inclusion, Strachan said: "Its always good to have him about. He gets better and etter as he gets older.
"He still has that energy but is controlling himself a lot better."
Strachan also praised Miller, saying: "We look forward to having him back because he is a top professional and sets a standard at training that is great for the younger guys."
However, the Scots will be without captain Darren Fletcher, as he continues his recovery from a bowel operation, and Sunderland striker Steven Fletcher, who is contuining his recovery from a serious ankle injury.
"Steven won't be right for [the England game] but when you are talking about injuries like this, I think it is better to leave it to the clubs to tell you exactly what is going on," added Strachan.
"I spoke to him about two weeks ago and the situation might have changed.
"It's the same with Darren, I'll leave it to the club to tell you what is going on rather than me.
"But they are top players and top blokes. They will be missed, that is for sure. The quicker they get back the better."
The squad includes 22 English-based players, including Norwich trio Russell Martin, Steven Whittaker and Robert Snodgrass and goalkeeper Allan McGregor, who recently signed for newly-promoted Hull.
The friendly at Wembley on 14 August comes just under a month before Scotland's 2014 World Cup qualifier at home to Belgium.
While Strachan's side can no longer qualify for the tournament in Brazil, they have ensured that they will be in pot four for the Euro 2016 draw, courtesy of their 1-0 win over Croatia in June.
Goalkeepers: Matt Gilks (Blackpool), David Marshall (Cardiff), Allan McGregor (Hull)
Defenders: Gordon Greer (Brighton), Steven Hammell (Motherwell), Grant Hanley (Blackburn), Alan Hutton (Aston Villa), Russell Martin (Norwich), Charlie Mulgrew (Celtic), Andy Webster (Unattached), Steven Whittaker (Norwich)
Midfielders: Charlie Adam (Stoke), Barry Bannan (Aston Villa), George Boyd (Hull), Liam Bridcutt (Brighton), Chris Burke (Birmingham), Scott Brown (Celtic), Craig Conway (Cardiff), Graham Dorrans (West Brom), James Forrest (Celtic), Gary Mackay-Steven (Dundee United), James McArthur (Wigan), James Morrison (West Brom), Steven Naismith (Everton), Robert Snodgrass (Norwich)
Forwards: Leigh Griffiths (Wolves), Shaun Maloney (Wigan), Kenny Miller (Vancouver Whitecaps), Jordan Rhodes (Blackburn)