Teixeira, who joined the Bees last month, had been due to remain with the Sky Bet League One club until January 5, but the 20-year-old attacking midfielder is back with the Reds after just 28 days of the youth loan deal.
The Portuguese made two substitute appearances during his time at Griffin Park.
"Unfortunately we were not able to give Joao the opportunity to demonstrate his obvious talent," sporting director Mark Warburton told Brentford's official club website.
"I would like to place on record our appreciation to Frank McParland and the Liverpool staff for allowing Joao to spend some time with us."
Teixeira is now back training with Liverpool's Under-21 side, but the Barclays Premier League club may look to send him back out on loan for more senior experience.