The Frenchman suffered the damage and was forced off just 37 minutes into the Magpies' 1-0 UEFA Europa League win over Anzhi Makhachkala at St James' Park on Thursday night.
Cabaye, who has made 25 appearances for Newcastle this season, underwent surgery in December on a groin injury which forced him to spend two months on the sidelines.
But the 27-year-old insists his latest problem is less severe and not linked to his earlier injury.
"It is adductor, but not the same place," he told L'Equipe. "I felt some pain.
"We played a lot of matches recently so that could be a reason. Before the encounter against Anzhi, I felt fine.
"I don't think it will be really serious."