Turner played 43 times for the Bluebirds last season after joining from Coventry in August 2011, scoring three goals in his debut campaign.
"I'm very happy to be staying at Cardiff City - this is where I want to be," Turner told the club's official website.
"I'm delighted to be extending my time here and I've enjoyed every moment from day one. I know that's what people may expect me to say, but I genuinely mean every word.
"I want to play at the next level now and feel I can develop into that player at this club."
Cardiff manager Malky Mackay admitted he was delighted to retain the services of Turner for an extended period.
"Ben was someone I looked at and was desperate to get into the club from the moment I got here," he said.
"I was delighted when that happened and then even more so based on the fantastic season he had for us last year.
"Recently we've been speaking to him, along with his representatives on the prospect of extending his terns here and they've all been great to deal with.
"Ben is desperate to stay here and desperate to commit to Cardiff City for the longer term, which was music to my ears.
"He's still only young and has all the potential to be a top, top centre-back. He's doing very well at the moment and this new deal extends that partnership."