Danny Batth put Wanderers in front with a 48th-minute header and Dave Edwards made the game safe from close range midway through the second half.
It was Wolves' 13th win in their last 16 games and their 23rd clean sheet in the league this season - equalling a club record set during the 1923-24 campaign.
Barring a mathematical miracle in terms of goal difference they are now two wins from promotion back to the Championship following successive relegations.
Jackett said: "We hope we can get promotion this season, that is our aim.
"Once we have made that step hopefully we can build on it. That is what we are looking to do.
"We are trying to build something positive here after a couple of negative seasons and we have taken good strides to doing that but how to achieve our goal of winning promotion is to break it down and work out how we are going to win our next game.
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"Mathematically we need 96 points to go up and we will be attacking every game and getting as many points as we can.
"Every win at this stage is a big step. When you are down to single figures in games if you can maintain that gap or improve it then they are big steps. This was a big step.
"We have been thinking about promotion from day one. It has been our aim all the way through but then you need to go one stage further and say how are you going to do that.
"If you keep staring at the table and don't concentrate on your football then the likelihood is that you won't do well enough to be able to get the points."
Jackett added: "It was a great win against Peterborough. I thought we played very well. The performance was good.
"I felt that we deserved to win with two good goals and after two tough away games I thought we were back to our best.
"We dominated the ball and we dominated possession because that leads to clean sheets and scoring goals."