The 29-year-old will miss the opening 12 Premier League matches after he was sent off on the final day of last season at Manchester City and was later found guilty of two counts of violent conduct by the Football Association.
Barton has spent pre-season training with Fleetwood and BBC Lancashire had reported that he could extend his stay with the Cod Army.
"BBC news jumping the gun a bit," he said on Twitter. "I've not signed for Fleetwood. Just currently enjoying training there..."
QPR stripped Barton of the captaincy and fined him six weeks' wages following the incident at the Etihad Stadium in May.