The 44-year-old Barca coach had an operation on a tumour on his parotid gland on December 20 before beginning a course of chemotherapy.
Vilanova, who first had a tumour removed from his throat in 2011, was unable to attend Barca's final match of 2012 against Real Valladolid but he was back in the dugout for Sunday's 4-0 win over city rivals Espanyol at the Nou Camp.
Club president Sandro Rosell told Barca TV: "He (Vilanova) is showing that you can fight against diseases. He has shown his mental and physical strength.
"The doctors have given permission for him to come and after he will continue his recovery. He is determined to lead the team as long as the doctors allow him."