The 22-year-old has impressed during a trial at the DW Stadium and will now provide competition to regular No 1 Ali Al Habsi and reserve keeper Mike Pollitt.
Robles has struggled to break into an Atletico side that currently lies second in the Spanish top-flight, with coach Diego Simeone preferring to use on-loan Chelsea player Thibaut Courtois.
The 6ft 5in keeper was loaned out to Rayo Vallecano last season before returning to the Vicente Calderon stadium.
"Atletico Madrid and Wigan Athletic have reached an agreement so that Joel Robles, after a trial period with the English club, will play on loan until June 30 with the Premier League team," read a statement on Atletico's official website.
"The goalkeeper will return to the 'rojiblanco' at the end of this loan period."