Curbishley has been out of the game for five years during which time his expert analysis was a regular feature on Sky Sports News.
Both he and Head Coach Rene Meulensteen will report to the club's CEO Alistair Mackintosh.
Meulensteen told the club's website: "I'm very happy that Alan has joined us as I know his expertise will be invaluable as we enter the remaining months of the season.
"Following Martin [Jol's] departure I discussed with both Alistair Mackintosh and the Chairman the challenges we face, and I was delighted that they supported the idea of additional support within the coaching team.
"Alan has a proven track record in the industry and understands full well what it takes to succeed. I look forward to sharing ideas and listening to advice, to ensure Fulham Football Club remains where it belongs: in the Premier League."
Curbishley spent 15 years at Charlton, twice helping them win promotion to the Premier League, in 1998 and 2000.
He also had two years at West Ham, helping them avoid relegation from the Premier League in 2007 before resigning just over a year later.
His arrival at Craven Cottage follows that of midfielder Clint Dempsey who signed a two-month loan deal from Seattle Sounders.
Dempsey spent five years with Fulham from 2007 to 2012 before joining Tottenham.