Meulensteen, who himself only took over the reins from Martin Jol at the beginning of the month, has welcomed the return of the Cottagers' former manager.
Meulensteen said: "I am delighted that the Chairman and the CEO have, again, backed my desire for further experience and support within the backroom staff.
"Retaining our status of being a Premier League club next season is vitally important to our long term plans, and I know that Ray's own experience and his knowledge of the game will be a vital component in our success."
Wilkins became the manager of Fulham in 1997, with former England team-mate Kevin Keegan working under him.
Wilkins took the side to the Second Division play-offs, but was sacked by chairman Mohamed Al-Fayed after Fulham lost the last three games of the regular season.
After leaving Fulham, Wilkins worked as a coach at Watford, Millwall and Chelsea. He left his post at Stamford Bridge in November 2010 and has been working as a Sky Sports pundit.
It is the second backroom addition at Fulham in the past seven days; Alan Curbishley joined as first team technical director on Christmas Eve.