The banana was thrown from the stands as the Brazilian was preparing to take a corner in the 75th minute, at which point Barca were trailing 2-1 and in the middle of a comeback from 2-0 down.
Noticing the banana on the pitch, the 30-year-old strode over to pick it up, took a bite, and then tossed it aside before taking the corner.
After the match, the 30-year-old Alves said: "We have suffered this in Spain for some time. You have to take it with a dose of humour.
"We aren't going to change things easily. If you don't give it importance, they don't achieve their objective."
"I've lived in Spain for 11 years," Sport.es quoted Alves as saying. "You just have to laugh."
Alves previously called for "drastic measures" to be taken to tackle racism in Spanish football after being subjected to monkey chants during the first leg of the Copa del Rey semi-finals against Real Madrid last year.
Following the win, Barcelona and Brazil team-mate Neymar took to Instagram to post a picture of himself with a banana.
The striker wrote: "We are all monkeys."