The three players were all involved as City claimed their second Premier League title in three years with a 2-0 victory over West Ham at the Etihad Stadium on Sunday.
Aguero has been hampered by injuries this season but is named in a star-studded selection of forwards which also includes Lionel Messi, Gonzalo Higuain and Ezequiel Lavezzi.
But there is no place in the party for Juventus' former City forward Carlos Tevez, with coach Alejandro Sabella also leaving out Erik Lamela after his lack of action with Tottenham this season.
Argentina are among the favourites for glory in Brazil this summer and take on Bosnia, Iran and Nigeria in Group F.
Argentina provisional squad:
Goalkeepers: Mariano Andujar (Catania), Agustin Orion (Boca), Sergio Romero (Monaco)
Defenders: Jose Basanta (Monterrey), Hugo Campagnaro (Inter), Martin Demichelis (Manchester City), Federico Fernandez (Napoli), Ezequiel Garay (Benfica), Lisandro Lopez (Getafe), Gabriel Mercado (River), Nicolas Otamendi (Atletico Mineiro), Marcos Rojo (Sporting de Lisboa), Pablo Zabaleta (Manchester City)
Midfielders: Fernando Gago (Boca), Javier Mascherano (Barcelona), Angel Di Maria (Real Madrid), Ever Banega (Newell's) , Lucas Biglia (Lazio), Maxi Rodriguez (Newell's), Augusto Fernandez (Celta), Jose Sosa (Atletico de Madrid), Enzo Perez (Benfica), Ricardo Alvarez (Inter), Fabian Rinaudo (Catania)
Forwards: Sergio Aguero (Manchester City), Franco Di Santo (Werder Bremen), Gonzalo Higuain (Napoli), Ezequiel Lavezzi (PSG), Lionel Messi (Barcelona), Rodrigo Palacio (Inter)