The left-back's deal was due to expire next month, but a 12-month extension will keep him at Old Trafford into a 10th year.
Evra was linked with a return to previous club Monaco during the final months of David Moyes' reign, and United recently tabled a £27m bid for Southampton's Luke Shaw.
But the 33-year-old, who was bought in the 2006 January transfer window, has chosen not to follow Rio Ferdinand and Nemanja Vidic out of the club.
And he will now form part of Louis van Gaal's first United squad.
A tweet from United's official Twitter account account read: "We can confirm that Patrice Evra has extended his contract at mufc for another year."
Manchester United midfielder Shinji Kagawa is another player to have been linked with a move away from Old Trafford, but he is keeping his focus on Japan's World Cup bid rather than his own future.
"I think everyone knows I want to do well at the World Cup, and I'm sure everyone else does, too," he told Kyodo news agency this week at Japan's training camp.
"But I don't want to get my priorities mixed up here - the important thing is for Japan to win at the World Cup. I'm not using the World Cup as a place to showcase myself for (van Gaal)."
United are reportedly interested in signing German midfielder Toni Kroos, but he has revealed that he expects to stay at Bayern Munich.
"There was a lot of speculation, but Manchester is and was not an issue," said Kroos.
"At this point in time I am fully focused on preparations for the 2014 FIFA World Cup.