The Chelsea defender was assessed by England medical staff who decided he will not be fit to take part in Friday's match.
He will be reassessed later in the week with a view to the second of England's two qualifiers, against Montenegro on Tuesday.
Taylor will link up with the squad in place of Cahill, who joins Michael Dawson, Rio Ferdinand and Phil Jagielka on the injury sidelines.
Boss Roy Hodgson's options at centre-back are Steven Caulker, Joleon Lescott, Chris Smalling and now Taylor.
Taylor said: "I am so happy to have received a call-up to the full squad. It's every player's ambition to represent their country.
"If I am lucky enough to be given that chance over the next seven days, it will be one of the proudest moments of my playing career.
Taylor has been in fine form for Newcastle this season since returning from injury and club manager Alan Pardew is delighted to see him gain international recognition.
"This is a fully deserved call-up for Steven," said Pardew.
"He missed part of the season but since his return has been outstanding.
"He has a great chance, on this form, of going to the World Cup. On behalf of all the squad, staff and supporters, we wish him all the best and hope he is given the chance to win his first senior international cap."