The 28-year-old took a knock during Juventus' Serie A victory at Bologna on Saturday night but was still named in Azzurri head coach Cesare Prandelli's 27-man party, who face Brazil in a friendly match on Thursday night in preparation for Tuesday's World Cup qualifier in Malta.
Chiellini, however, has failed to recover in time to feature and will return to Turin for further treatment, national team doctor Enrico Castellacci has confirmed.
He told FIGC.it: "We conducted new tests on Chiellini's condition this morning and, although recent therapy has improved his condition, I can say with certainty he will not be available for the Brazil game.
"The player is also borderline for the Malta game."
Italy challenge Luiz Felipe Scolari's Selecao in Geneva before travelling to Valletta as Group B's bottom nation host an Azzurri side in pole position to qualify for next year's World Cup in Brazil.