Libya would have pipped the Indomitable Lions to top spot in Group I with victory in Yaounde, but Galatasaray defender Chedjou made sure of the hosts' progression with a headed goal in the 42nd minute.
Cameroon join Ethiopia, Cape Verde, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Egypt, Algeria and Senegal in the next round, where the 10 group winners will be drawn into five home-and-away ties.
Aggregate victory over the two legs - to be held in October and November - yields qualification for next summer's World Cup finals in Brazil.
Togo will not be there but their disastrous Group I campaign ended on a high note as substitute Backer Aloenouvo's last-minute goal decided a 2-1 victory over DR Congo in Lome.
The Sparrow Hawks, who competed at Germany 2006, failed to win any of their opening five qualifying games until Aloenouvo added to Lalawele Atakora's opener to cancel out Patou Ebunga-Simbi's response for the visitors.
Southampton midfielder Victor Wanyama's fifth-minute goal booked Kenya a 1-0 win - their only victory in qualifying - over Namibia in Group F while Lesotho came from behind to beat 10-man Sudan 3-2 in Khartoum.
The dead-rubber game in Group D offered plenty of drama as Bakri Almadina and Muhannad El Tahir fired Sudan into an early lead before Tsepo Lekhoana replied for the Crocodiles.
Tsepo Seturumane dragged Lesotho - who had lost their previous away games 7-0 and 4-0 - back on to equal terms shortly after Ahmed Abdalla had been dismissed for the hosts, and Tsoanelo Koetle duly fired the winner 10 minutes from time.
Zimbabwe and Mozambique had nothing to play for in Group G and, with Maninho cancelling out Masimba Mambare's opener for the Warriors, the points were shared from a 1-1 draw in Harare.
The bragging rights were the only reward available in Group H, too, and it was Benin who took them as Mickael Pote and Bello Babatounde scored in a 2-0 home win over Rwanda.