The experienced midfielder has moved for an undisclosed fee three months before his contract in Germany was due to expire.
Josue skippered Wolfsburg when they landed the Bundesliga title in 2009 and made over 160 appearances for the club over the course of a six-year spell.
"We have agreed to this transfer," Wolfsburg's general manager Klaus Allofs told the club's official website.
"Josue is one of the most successful players in the history of Wolfsburg.
"This switch is an interesting opportunity for him, therefore we have decided to sanction the move. He was a great servant to Wolfsburg down the years."
Josue, who is believed to have penned a deal until 2014 with Atletico, added: "Of course I am sad that I'm leaving Wolfsburg, but this move is a big challenge for me.
"It was a wonderful time with many good and bad moments. I wish the team all the best and I'm confident they will achieve a lot of success."