Klose, 36, scored two goals in the World Cup in Brazil, making him the highest-scoring player in the tournament’s history with 16, one ahead of Brazil's Ronaldo.
With a career total of 71 goals, Klose is also the highest-scoring player for Germany.
Klose, who was born in Poland, told the German national team’s website: "With the win in Brazil, a childhood dream came true, I am proud and happy that I was able to help this great success.
"I had a unique and wonderful time and many memorable moments with the national team."
Klose made his Germany debut in 2001 and has since played in four World Cups, scoring at all of them.
His goal in the incredible 7-1 semi-final win over Brazil took him past Ronaldo's tally of 15.
"The team's success was and is always the top priority for me," he added.
"I've achieved our goal with the national team but I have achieved goals I set personally too. Anyone who knows me knows I am very ambitious.
"The job of a striker is to score goals and it never occurred to me about records. As a striker I am always dependent on my team-mates and I give them a big thank you."
Klose bows out of the international arena with Germany having never lost whenever he has scored.
With 137 caps to his name, only Lothar Matthaus has won more, and coach Joachim Low paid a glowing tribute.
"Miro Klose is an international star. He is one of the greatest strikers there have been," he said.
"His footballing qualities; his aerial ability, his goal threat, his understanding and his tireless commitment are second to none, and yet I have barely seen a player who is so much about modesty and team spirit.
"For Miro it was always an honour to play for the national team and he has given everything to Germany. He will be missed as a footballer and a person and I am happy and grateful I was able to work with him."
Klose follows Germany captain Philipp Lahm into international retirement, with the 30-year-old having done so in the immediate aftermath of the World Cup.
"We gave him (Klose) and Philipp Lahm a worthy farewell," DFB president Wolfgang Niersbach said.