The 31-year-old tore cruciate knee ligaments in October and needed further surgery recently, ruling him out for a further few months, but he hopes to return for the start of next season stronger than ever.
"Stuttgart has been my home for almost a decade and I have celebrated huge sporting successes and fantastic moments here," he said.
"My first goal is to get fit again as quickly as possible to be able to give it my very best next season."
Cacau joined Stuttgart from Nurnberg in 2003 and has played a total of 242 times for the club.
"Cacau will be going into his 11th season with Stuttgart in the summer and that is an incredibly long time in the football world," said the club's director of sport Fredi Bobic on their website.
"He will be able to help us further with all of his experience, so we're pleased to be able to plan with him also for the coming season."