The 19-year-old has arrived at Molineux to provide competition at left-back, with George Elokobi injured and Stephen Ward the only remaining option in the position.
Robinson, who is an England U21 international, could go straight into the Wolves squad for Tuesday's crucial Championship clash with Barnsley.
Wanderers boss Dean Saunders told wolves.co.uk: "Jack is left-footed and he can play anywhere down the left side and he gives us competition for places.
"I spoke to (Liverpool manager) Brendan Rodgers, I spoke to Steve Cooper, who was his coach in the Under-16s and 17s, and I've spoken to nearly all the coaches that he's played for and all of them have been very positive about him.
"He's got really good quality on the ball, he's aggressive and he's a winner. Sometimes a young lad and a fresh face comes in and lifts the place, and I think Jack is strong enough to be able to deal with the pressure."
Robinson became Liverpool's youngest ever player when making his Premier League debut against Hull in 2010 but has failed to establish himself at Anfield since with the likes of Jose Enrique and Glen Johnson ahead of him in the pecking order.