The Blues' title bid was severely dented on Saturday night as Fabio Borini converted a late penalty at Stamford Bridge after Cesar Azpilicueta tackled Jozy Altidore in the area.
There did appear to be contact between the players before referee Mike Dean pointed to the spot.
Mourinho, though, appeared frustrated by Dean's performance throughout, before also seemingly criticising referees' chief Mike Riley in a short and curt post-match interview with Sky Sports.
"I just want to say four things and I'm sorry because if you ask me more questions, I'll repeat exactly the same thing," said Mourinho, who had not spoken at his previous three press conference following his fine for entering the pitch during a defeat at Aston Villa last month.
"Congratulations to my players because they gave what they have and what they don't have.
"Congratulations to Sunderland, because they won.
"Congratulations to Mike Dean, because he made a fantastic performance.
"And congratulations to Mike Riley, because what they did during the season was fantastic for the way the championship is going.
"Congratulations to all of them - and I have nothing more to say."
Mourinho walked away from the post-match interview when asked to expand on his comments, and was similarly short on answers in the press conference that followed.
"I will not wait for your questions, I'm so sorry about it," said the Chelsea boss.
"But in four quick points I can say everything I want to say, so we are not going to waste time, because every question you can ask me I will answer exactly the same way.
"So we stick with four quick points.
"The first point is to congratulate my players, they did everything they could, they fought, they played from the first to the last second.
"And I think they deserve that.
"Sometimes we praise the players when we win, I think it's fair to praise my players after a defeat.
"Secondly, congratulations to Sunderland, it doesn't matter how or why, or in which way they won, but they won, they won the three points, and it's three fantastic points for them.
"So I think it's also fair to congratulate them.
"The third point, I want to congratulate again, but this time is Mike Dean.
"I think his performance was unbelievable, and I think when referees they have unbelievable performances I think it's fair also that managers we give them this.
"So fantastic performance, he came here with one objective, the objective of making a fantastic performance and he did that.
"And fourth, I think it's also fair, congratulations to Mike Riley, because he's the referees' boss, and what they are doing during the whole season is fantastic, especially in the last couple of months, especially in matches involving the teams that were in the title race, it's absolutely fantastic.
"And I also congratulate Mr Mike Riley, thank you."