The Celtic midfielder, 29, has earned 12 caps for Scotland, scoring two goals, but said he wanted to dedicate more time to his young family and his club career.
"I have enjoyed my time immensely with the Scotland team and it was a very proud moment every time I pulled on the Scotland shirt," Commons told Celtic's official website.
"I will always, of course, be a Scotland supporter. I have thought about this decision for some time. At this stage of my career, I just want to give Celtic my 100 per cent commitment and ensure I can prolong my club career as long as possible.
"I also want to give my young family more attention, something I have not been able to do for some time."
Commons was given his international debut by George Burley in a friendly against Northern Ireland in August 2008 but was overlooked by Gordon Strachan for the forthcoming World Cup qualifier against Croatia.
"Neil Lennon had spoken to Gordon in person a while back and I was really pleased to speak to Gordon today," he added.
"I am on very good terms with him and I wish him and the Scotland team all the very best for the future. I am sure Gordon will do a great job."
Strachan added: "I spoke to Kris tonight and understand his family considerations. I wish him the best of luck."