Archibald's promotion comes after Jackie McNamara and Simon Donnelly left Firhill to take up the reins at Dundee United.
The 35-year-old, who spent four years playing with United, has made over 600 appearances for Partick in his two spells with the Glasgow club.
Archibald will be assisted by fellow defender Scott Paterson, as the Jags chase promotion and prepare for the Ramsdens Cup Final.
A statement from Partick read: "We are nicely placed in second position in the First Division and have a Ramsdens Cup Final to look forward to in April.
"We have every reason to look forward to both the remainder of this season, and beyond, with optimism, but it's important to retain continuity.
"With that in mind we would like to confirm the interim appointment of Alan Archibald as our manager. Assisting Alan will be an ex central defensive partner of his, Scott Paterson."