The Chile international had an operation in Barcelona to resolve a meniscus injury that he has struggled with this season.
A statement from Juve read: "Arturo Vidal this morning underwent a partial lateral meniscectomy operation on his right knee in Barcelona.
"The surgery was carried out by Dr. Ramon Cugat, in the presence of medical staff from Juventus and the Chilean national team.
"The midfielder will be discharged tomorrow (Thursday) and will return to Turin for the continuation of his rehabilitation programme."
Juve did not elaborate on the length of Vidal's absence but the 26-year-old, who scored 11 goals in 32 league appearances to help the Turin giants clinch their third straight scudetto, is expected to recover in time for this summer's World Cup in Brazil.
Chile have been drawn alongside reigning champions Spain, Holland and Australia in Group B in this summer's tournament.