The on-loan Manchester United winger finished confidently after Jeff Hendrick had opened the scoring from a cross by former Charlton striker Darren Bent and although the visitors had more of the ball in the second half, Derby were good value for a victory that takes them five points clear of third place.
Derby sprang a surprise before kick-off by dropping defender Jake Buxton, who scored twice on Saturday, to the bench while Charlton’s new signing, the former France skipper Alou Diarra, was among their substitutes.
Will Hughes had set up Derby’s winner against Sheffield Wednesday and the 19-year-old midfielder started the move that gave the home side a ninth-minute lead.
Hughes cut inside before his clever reverse pass to Bent gave the striker the time to deliver a low cross from the right that Hendrick turned past Stephen Henderson from six yards.
Bent almost got to a Tom Ince cross and the winger curled a shot from the edge of the box just past Henderson’s right upright in the 14th minute before Derby’s slick passing and movement brought them a second goal three minutes later.
This time it was Hendrick who provided the measured pass in to Lingard who took the ball in his stride before firing low into the left corner from 12 yards.
Charlton had been penned in their own half but a quick break almost got Johann Berg-Gudmundsson in. However, Ryan Shotton got across to make a vital challenge and normal service was resumed when Hendrick set up Hughes to shoot just wide in the 36th minute.
Lee Grant was called into action for the first time in the 39th minute when he leapt to his left to turn over a Gudmundsson free-kick but Hendrick almost scored again in first-half stoppage time with a shot from the edge of box that rattled the bar.
Charlton brought on Diarra at the start of the second period but Derby were well in control, although Gudmundsson cheered the small group of visiting fans with a strong run and shot that was charged down before Diarra had a shot blocked by Shotton in the 58th minute.
It was a warning that Derby could not afford to ease off but the home side still looked comfortable and when Gudmundsson had a free-kick a couple of yards outside the box in the 76th minute, he curled it high over the bar.
Charlton kept plugging away but they failed to test Grant in the second half and Derby eased to a second home win in four days.